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Billy 2753 oncology visit report

Billy 2753

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My cancer is T2, NO, Margins negative (RO), as adjuvant treatment, chemotherapy (category 1). I have agreed to this and treatment will begin next Tuesday. The medicines will be Carboplatin (Paraplatin), and Paclitaxel (Taxole). The treatment will be once every three weeks for four times. This will statistically raise my percentage of survival to the 5-year mark to 71% from 59. If 5 years is obtained then this cancer usually does not return but others can

The size of the tumor was 6cm. If its size had been 3cm or less then the subsequent treatment would have been to observe.

T2 size of tumor (larger than 3cm)

NO indicates no lymph glands involved

RO means no residual tumor

I do not know what category 1 chemo is other than what my agenda is to be.

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let Me say congrats Billy The Plan sounds positive and If you want to more about the Categoty issue this should clarify and Good Luck Keep us posted.

What Are the Different Types of Chemotherapy Drugs?

Chemotherapy drugs are divided into several groups based on how they affect specific chemical substances within cancer cells, which cellular activities or processes the drug interferes with, and which specific phases of the cell cycle the drug affects. Knowing this helps oncologists decide which drugs are likely to work well together and, if more than one drug will be used, plan exactly when each of the drugs should be given (in which order and how often).

Alkylating Agents

Alkylating agents work directly on DNA to prevent the cancer cell from reproducing. As a class of drugs, these agents are not phase-specific (in other words, they work in all phases of the cell cycle). These drugs are active against chronic leukemias, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, Hodgkin disease, multiple myeloma, and lung, breast, ovarian, and certain other cancers.

Some examples of alkylating agents include busulfan, cisplatin, carboplatin, chlorambucil, cyclophosphamide, ifosfamide, dacarbazine (DTIC), mechlorethamine (nitrogen mustard), melphalan, and temozolomide.


Nitrosoureas act in a similar way to alkylating agents. They interfere with enzymes that help repair DNA. Unlike many other drugs, these agents are able to travel from the blood to the brain, so they are often used to treat brain tumors. They may also be used to treat non-Hodgkin lymphomas, multiple myeloma, and malignant melanoma.

Examples of nitrosoureas include carmustine (BCNU) and lomustine (CCNU).


Antimetabolites are a class of drugs that interfere with DNA and RNA growth. These agents work during the S phase and are commonly used to treat leukemias, tumors of the breast, ovary, and the gastrointestinal tract, as well as other cancers.

Examples of antimetabolites include 5-fluorouracil, capecitabine, 6-mercaptopurine, methotrexate, gemcitabine, cytarabine (ara-C), fludarabine, and pemetrexed.

Anthracyclines and Related Drugs

Anthracyclines interfere with enzymes involved in DNA replication. These agents work in all phases of the cell cycle. Thus, they are widely used for a variety of cancers. A major concern when giving these drugs is the effect they can have on heart muscle.

Examples include daunorubicin, doxorubicin (Adriamycin), epirubicin, idarubicin, and mitoxantrone.

Topoisomerase nhibitors

These drugs interfere with enzymes called topoisomerases, which are important in DNA replication. They are used to treat certain leukemias, and lung, ovarian, gastrointestinal, and other cancers.

Examples of topoisomerase I inhibitors include topotecan and irinotecan.

Examples of topoisomerase II inhibitors include etoposide (VP-16) and teniposide.

Mitotic Inhibitors

Mitotic inhibitors are plant alkaloids and other compounds derived from natural products. They can stop mitosis or inhibit enzymes from making proteins needed for reproduction of the cell. These work during the M phase of the cell cycle.

Examples of mitotic inhibitors include the taxanes (paclitaxel, docetaxel) and the vinca alkaloids (vinblastine, vincristine, and vinorelbine).

Corticosteroid Hormones

Steroids are natural hormones and hormone-like drugs that are useful in treating some types of cancer (lymphoma, leukemias, and multiple myeloma) as well as other illnesses. When these drugs are used to kill cancer cells or slow their growth, they are considered chemotherapy drugs. They are often combined with other types of chemotherapy drugs to increase their effectiveness.

Examples include prednisone and dexamethasone.

Miscellaneous Chemotherapy Drugs

Some chemotherapy drugs act in slightly different ways and do not fit well into any of the other categories.

Examples include such drugs as L-asparaginase, dactinomycin, thalidomide, and tretinoin.

Other Types of Cancer Drug Therapies

Some other drugs and biological treatments are used to treat cancer but are not usually considered to be “chemotherapy.” While chemotherapy drugs take advantage of the fact that cancer cells divide rapidly, these other drugs target different properties that set cancer cells apart from normal cells. They often have less serious side effects than those commonly caused by chemotherapy drugs. Some are even used in combination with chemotherapy.

Targeted therapies: As researchers have come to learn more about the inner workings of cancer cells in recent years, they have begun to create new drugs that attack cancer cells more specifically than standard chemotherapy drugs can. Most attack cells with mutant versions of certain genes, or cells that express too many copies of these genes.

Only a handful of these drugs are available at this time. Examples include imatinib (Gleevec), gefitinib (Iressa), erlotinib (Tarceva), rituximab (Rituxan), and bevacizumab (Avastin). There will likely many more in the future.

sex hormones: sex hormones, or hormone-like drugs, alter the action or production of female or male hormones. They are used to slow the growth of breast, prostate, and endometrial (uterine) cancers, which normally grow in response to hormone levels in the body. These hormones do not work in the same ways as standard chemotherapy drugs.

Examples include anti-estrogens (tamoxifen, fulvestrant), aromatase inhibitors (anastrozole, exemestane, letrozole), progestins (megestrol acetate), anti-androgens (bicalutamide, flutamide), and LHRH agonists (leuprolide, goserelin).

Immunotherapy: Some drugs are given to people with cancer to stimulate their immune systems to more effectively recognize and attack cancer cells. These drugs offer a unique method of treatment, and are often considered to be separate from "chemotherapy."

Revised: 05/04/2005

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