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Recommendations to reduce the cancer risk

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http://www.wcrf-hk.org/recommendations. ... jNir3B083E


1. Food supply and eating

Populations to consume nutritionally adequate and varied diets, based primarily on foods of plant origin

Choose predominantly plant-based diets rich in a variety of vegetables and fruits, pulses (legumes) and minimally processed starchy staple foods

2. Maintaining body weight

Population average body mass indices throughout adult life to be within the range BMI 21 - 23, in order that individual BMI be maintained between 18.5 and 25a

Avoid being underweight or overweight and limit weight gain during adulthood to less than 5 kg (11 pounds)

3. Maintaining physical activity

Populations to maintain, throughout life, an active lifestyle equivalent to a physical activity level (PAL) of at least 1.75, with regular opportunities for vigorous physical activity

If occupational activity is low or moderate, take an hour's brisk walk or similar exercise daily, and also exercise vigorously for a total of at least one hour in a weekb

If you are just starting out, try to get some moderate physical activity, at least 30 minutes daily. Moderate activity could include activities such as briskly walking, cycling, gardening or dancing.


4. Vegetables and fruits

Promote year-round consumption of a variety of vegetables and fruits, providing 7% or more total energy

Eat 400 - 800 grams (15 - 30 ounces) or five or more portions (servings) a day of a variety of vegetables and fruits, all year round b, c

In Hong Kong, 400 - 800 grams is about 10 - 20 taels.

5. Other plant foodsd

A variety of starchy or protein-rich foods of plant origin, preferably minimally processed, to provide 45 - 60% total energy. Refined sugar to provide less than 10% total energy

Eat 600 - 800 grams (20 - 30 ounces) or more than seven portions (servings) a day of a variety of cereals (grains), pulses (legumes), roots, tubers and plantains. b, e Prefer minimally processed foods. Limit consumption of refined sugar

600 - 800 grams is roughly 15 - 20 taels. A medium sized bowl of rice in Hong Kong is typically 200 grams.

6. Alcoholic drinks

Consumption of alcohol is not recommended. Excessive consumption of alcohol to be discouraged. For those who drink alcohol, restrict it to less than 5% total energy for men and less than 2.5% total energy for women

Alcohol consumption is not recommended. If consumed at all, limit alcoholic drinks to less than two drinks a day for men and one for women f, g

One drink is equal to 250 ml (one small glass) of standard strength beer, a small glass of wine or 25 ml (one measure) of spirits, or equivalent.

7. Red Meat

If eaten at all, red meat to provide less than 10% total energy

If eaten at all, limit intake of red meat (for example beef) to less than 80 grams (3 ounces) daily. It is preferable to choose fish or poultry in place of red meath

In Hong Kong, 80 grams is the equivalent of 2 taels.

8. Total fats and oils

Total fats and oils to provide 15% to no more than 30% of total energy

Limit consumption of fatty foods, particularly those of animal origin. Choose modest amounts of appropriate vegetable oilsi

Fatty foods include fried and deep fried foods. Corn, sesame, fish and peanut oils are healthier alternatives to animal fats.


9. Salt and salting

Salt from all sources should amount to less than 6 grams/day (0.25 ounces) for adults

Limit consumption of salted foods and use of cooking and table salt. Use herbs and spices to season foods

Also limit your consumption of Chinese sauces such as soy and oyster sauce. Try using garlic, ginger and far jiu bak kok (peppercorn and star anise) to season foods instead. j

10. Storage

Store perishable food in ways that minimise fungal contamination

Do not eat food which, as a result of prolonged storage at ambient temperatures, is liable to contamination with mycotoxins

11. Preservation

Perishable food, if not consumed promptly, to be kept frozen or chilled

Use refrigeration and other appropriate methods to preserve perishable food as purchased and at home

12. Additives and residues

Establish and monitor the enforcement of safety limits for food additives, pesticides and their residues, and other chemical contaminants in the food supply

When levels of additives, contaminants and other residues are properly regulated, their presence in food and drink is not known to be harmful. However, unregulated or improper use can be a health hazard; this applies particularly to food supplies in economically developing countries

13. Preparation

When meat and fish are eaten, encourage relatively low temperature cooking

Do not eat charred food. For meat and fish eaters, avoid burning of meat juices. Consume the following only occasionally: meat and fish grilled (broiled) in direct flame; cured and smoked meats


14. Dietary supplements

Community dietary patterns to be consistent with reduction of cancer risk without the use of dietary supplements

For those who follow the recommendations presented here, dietary supplements are probably unnecessary, and possibly unhelpful, for reducing cancer risk


Tobacco (individual goal):

Discourage production, promotion and use of tobacco in any form

Do not smoke or use tobacco in any form

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