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Lymph channels in lungs invaded by tumors


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my moms medical oncologist spoke with my father. this is a second hand explanation to me and way over my head. - doctor says that lungs are sort of surrounded by lymph channels. in my moms case these channels have been invaded by tumors which is causing the lung or lungs to be encased and casue her brerathing problem. not sure how much of her lung or if it involves both or not. cant remember the term he used - something like lymphang - something. he says that the critical care pulmonologist is giving steriods and can try a couple of othewr things and improve this condition. dr states no more alimta or any chemo unl;ess the pulmonologist can correct this. then may be taxotere or a avastin combination to buy a little time. other wise, just a waiting game



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This is my first search for Info on Lymphangiography. I think this is a start to whatt you are lookiing for. Still researching though

Definition Of lymphangiography

The lymphatic system is made up of lymph nodes and lymph vessels (lymphatics) that link the lymph nodes. The nodes harbor a type of white blood cell (lymphocytes) that helps fight infections.

When an infection is present, the lymph nodes swell, help proliferate the white blood cells, and try to trap the organisms that are causing the infection. The lymph nodes also function to filter and trap cancer cells.

The lymph nodes and vessels are not normally seen on an X-ray, so a contrast material and/or radioisotope (radioactive compound) is injected into the system to visualize it.

Alternative Names

Lymphography; Lymphangiography

How the test is performed

The test is performed in a hospital radiology department or in the health care provider's office by an X-ray technician.

If leg or arm swelling is being evaluated, you may be offered a sedative to help relax. You will be put in a specially constructed chair or on the X-ray table. The skin of each foot is cleansed, and a small amount of blue dye is injected between the toes into the webbing.

Within 15 minutes, thin, bluish lines appear on the top of the foot. This identifies the lymphatics. Then, a local anesthetic is given and a small incision is made into one of the larger blue lines. A needle or catheter (a thin flexible tube) is inserted into a lymphatic channel in each foot, and a contrast medium is injected into each foot at a very slow rate (60 to 90 minutes for all the contrast medium to be injected).

A fluoroscope (a special X-ray machine that projects the images on a TV monitor) is used to follow the dye as it spreads through the lymphatic system up the legs, into the groin, and along the back of the abdominal cavity.

Once the contrast medium is injected, the catheter is removed, and the incisions are stitched and bandaged. X-rays are taken of the legs, pelvis, abdomen, and chest areas. The next day, another set of X-rays may be taken.

If a site of cancer (breast or melanoma) is being studied to evaluate spreading, a mixture of blue dye and a radioactive tracer is injected next to the mass. Special cameras detect the spread of tracer along lymph channels to outlying nodes.

A surgeon will then use the visible blue dye or radioactivity within nodes to guide biopsy within adjacent tissues (such as the arm pit for breast cancer) to determine possible routes of cancer spread.

How to prepare for the test

Inform the health care provider if you are pregnant or you have bleeding problems. Also mention if you've had allergic reactions to X-ray contrast material or any iodine-containing substance. You must sign a consent form. You may be asked to restrict your diet to clear liquids for a period of time before the test. You may wish to empty your bladder just before the test.

If you are undergoing lymphangiography for sentinel lymph node biopsy (in breast cancer and melanoma), you will need to prepare for the operating room. A surgeon and anesthesiologist will discuss how to prepare for the procedure.

How the test will feel

There will be a brief sting from the needle and blue dye injected between the toes

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Click For Full Link

http://www.nhsdirect.nhs.uk/articles/ar ... onId=14813

Brief Treatment Read Thoroughly;

Myasthenia gravis






Selected links


Although there is no cure for MG, there are a range of treatments available that can control the symptoms for most people.

Some people with very mild symptoms find that rest and a good night’s sleep is all that is needed to relieve their symptoms, without any additional treatment.

Medicines known as cholinesterase inhibitors (such as pyridostigmine) can block the action of the chemical that normally makes the muscles relax once they have contracted. They work best with mild MG, but can improve muscle contractions and muscle strength in the muscles affected.

Surgical removal of the thymus gland (thymectomy) improves the symptoms of MG for more than 70% of those who have it, and for about 30% their symptoms disappear completely. However, the improvement may take some time to appear - it is usually seen within the first year, but may take up to three years. A thymectomy is generally only recommended for those under the age of 60.

Steroids (such as prednisolone) or immunosuppressant drugs (such as azathioprine) can alter the body’s immune system and reduce the production of the antibodies that cause MG. Although it may take several months, they can reduce or even completely relieve MG symptoms. They are often prescribed to those who cannot have a thymectomy, or those whose symptoms have not been improved by one.

If MG muscle weakness becomes so severe that it causes life-threatening breathing or swallowing problems, two treatments can be given - plasmaphoresis or intravenous immunoglobulin therapy. In plasmaphoresis, your blood is routed through a machine that removes the plasma containing the harmful antibodies, replacing it with antibody-free plasma before returning it to your body. In intravenous immunoglobulin therapy, you are injected with normal antibodies which change the way your immune system acts. Both of these treatments can produce a rapid improvement in MG symptoms, but the benefits only last for a few weeks, so they are not suitable as long-term treatments and are usually used only if you are seriously ill.

Apart from medical treatments, there are things you can do to make dealing with the symptoms of MG easier:

If the muscles you use for speaking, chewing and swallowing are affected, try to eat softer foods that are easier to swallow, and avoid foods that need a lot of chewing. Try to eat when your muscles are at their strongest, take your time eating, and rest between mouthfuls. Eating smaller meals, but more often, may be easier than eating a large amount three times a day.

Save your energy around the house by using electric items like electric toothbrushes, can openers and screwdrivers.

Plan your activities to coincide with the time when your energy levels are at their highest. This may be early in the day or soon after you have taken medication for your MG.

With treatment, many people with MG become completely free of symptoms, and most people with the condition are able to lead a normal, or nearly normal life, with few symptoms.

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